© Copyright 2015, T. Stanfill Benns (This text may be downloaded or printed out for private reading, but it may not be uploaded to another Internet site or published, electronically or otherwise, without express written permission from the author. All emphasis within quotes is the author’s unless indicated otherwise.)
Recently some have inquired about a supposed “loophole” in Church Law and teaching that allows bishops to consecrate other bishops and ordain priests in “emergency situations” with no need for permission from a canonically elected Roman Pontiff. As explained on this site many times, the Roman Pontiffs themselves have forbidden such exercise of episcopal jurisdiction independent of the Holy See.
The website we were asked to view that puts forth several grievous errors in this regard makes these outlandish statements without providing any proof whatsoever for their reliability and verification. Many Traditionalists, however, support this same teaching without referring to it under this title, including those involved with CMRI, MHFM (Dimond brothers), “independent” operators and others. They attempt to appeal to sacramental theology, trusting that those who read their writings will be unable to puzzle out their disingenuous representations of the truths of faith or properly reconcile what they teach with dogmatic theology and Canon Law. In the article below, five different statements made on this Traditional website and also in other articles will be examined and disproven as totally contradictory to Catholic teaching.
- Myth: Ex opere operato cancels out illicit orders
This unfounded claim holds that Catholic dogma teaches the Sacraments are administered ex opere operato, (grace issuing from the Sacrament itself), because such authority issues from our Lord Jesus Christ directly, not from any man. This statement is true in itself, but is falsely applied by Traditionalist authors. First, the recipient of the Sacrament must be considered. What the Council of Trent teaches is that given the right disposition of the recipient, grace is conveyed directly by Christ from his Sacraments through the minister who acts only as a conduit, (presupposing a validly ordained or consecrated minister). “If anyone says that the sacraments of the New Law…do not confer grace itself on those who do not place an obstacle thereunto…let him be anathema,” (DZ 849). Rev. Joseph Pohle defines this obstacle, in his works on the Sacraments (edited by Arthur Pruess), as “proper disposition and the removal of obstacles, i.e., due preparations on the part of the recipient…On this point the teaching of [Trent] applies full force. It is as necessary to prepare for the worthy reception of the Sacrament as it is to prepare for justification,” (Sacraments an I, pgs. 136-37). And in Pohle’s work, “Grace Actual and Habitual,” he notes, “The dogmatic teaching of the Catholic Church on justification is formally defined by the Tridentine Council… ‘Faith,’ it says ‘is the beginning of human salvation, the foundation and the root of all justification.’” Faith alone, without the reception of the Sacraments or at least the desire for them, does not justify man, (DZ 847; also 849).
The Protestants teach, Pohle says, “that the Church requires neither faith nor a good impulse of the heart for their [the Sacaments’] worthy reception, even in the case of lay adults,” (Sacraments I, pg. 136). Pohle also reminds readers, “It is not the private opinions of theologians but the official decisions of the Church by which we must be guided,” (The Sacraments, Vol. IV). Traditionalists believe they have faith, but do they? Doesn’t faith require us to obey the Roman Pontiffs and the teachings of the ecumenical councils, in all things regarding faith and morals on which the Church has pronounced, in order to be saved? Are Traditionalists doing this? Because it appears that if they were indeed following the teachings of the popes faithfully, they would know that the Church must be one body under one head on earth, and that without the pope, the juridical Church cannot even exist. The mark of apostolicity includes in its scope the head bishop of Rome (the Pope), and one broken link in the chain is enough to make it appear that this continuous succession has been interrupted, at least temporarily. Laws were specifically laid down concerning how the Church was to function during an interregnum, both in Pope St. Pius X’s Vacante Sede Apostolica and later Pope Pius XII’s Vacante Apostolica Sedis. Both Popes teach that even the cardinals, the highest functionaries in the Church, are forbidden to exempt themselves from any of the laws regarding the exercise of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, since all these acts in this regard are rendered null and void by these election laws.
As mentioned in the blog post previewing this article, (7-5-2015), these teachings by the popes on interregnums are nothing new. Professor and historian Walter Ullmann, in his “The Origins of the Great Schism,” relates what later became law under these two future popes. Speaking of the 14th century lay canonists Baldus de Ubaldis and Joannes de Lignano, Ullmann, calls Ubaldis one of the two “greatest jurists” of his time. Lignano he styles as enjoying respect and “authority in ecclesiastical circles…His reputation was great…Both jurists deal at length with the authority of the cardinals over the pope and both reach the conclusion that cardinals have no jurisdictional powers over the pope; they cannot be accusers, witnesses, and judges [all] in one…all disputes concerning intentions, motives and will must be decided by a judge, but who should be the judge in this case? Certainly nobody else but a general council… [which could only be] lawfully summoned by…Urban VI,” (or any currently reigning pope. Canons 222 and 229 forbid the calling or the conducting of an ecumenical council during an interregnum, meaning that even the entire body of bishops have no power to change Church law or teaching, either). “Baldus refers to a commentary of Clem. I.iii.2, which passage expressly lays down that during a vacancy the Sacred College cannot exercise papal jurisdiction nor can the cardinals change the constitution of the Church,” and here Ullmann notes this is found in Pope Pius X’s Vacante Sedis Apostolica, (reiterated by Pius XII in his 1945 constitution that abrogate Pope St. Pius X’s law). Baldus further taught that the cardinals also can clear the pope elected of all irregularities “except one, and that is persistent heresy.”
So Catholics first must have faith, and accept all papal teaching binding on them for belief to be saved. They must certainly be members of the Church in order to participate in the Sacraments and receive the graces therefrom. Many Traditionalists at one time attended the Novus Ordo. Others attended SSPX or belonged to other sects which recognize the antipopes following Pope Pius XII as validly elected, but flawed. These individuals can be classified as schismatics. And all Traditionalists, whether they believe the last six men ruling from Rome are antipopes or not, are members of sects operating without jurisdiction and unlawfully outside the laws of the Church. Those claiming emergency apostolic mandate do so from the standpoint of validity of orders and the other sacraments only, but this is not in accord with the Church’s teaching on jurisdiction. A simple look at the article on apostolicity and apostolic succession from the 1911 Catholic Encyclopedia will prove that orders is not enough, even in an “emergency”; true successors of the apostles must also possess jurisdiction or they are not legitimate (lawful) pastors. This lawfulness is not just administrative, as Traditionalists have insisted all these years, but Dogmatic, as proven below.
- Myth: Lawful refers to administrative matters, not validity
The key to the “illicit but valid” argument is found in DZ 967, from the Council of Trent: “If anyone says that … those who have neither been rightly ordained nor sent by ecclesiastical authority, but come from a different source, are the lawful ministers of the Word and of the Sacraments, let him be anathema.” (Sess. 23, July 15, 1563; DZ 967, 424). Any anathema is an infallible teaching of an ecumenical council, approved by the then-reigning pope. Notice that the one anathematized incurs it for saying that priests and bishops need not be both rightly ordained/consecrated AND sent; also for holding that despite lacking right ordination and/or “sending” (jurisdiction), they may preach and administer the Sacraments. If we go to the “placing of an obstacle” teaching in Trent’s earlier session on the Sacraments, (DZ 847 and 849, explained above), and understand it as proper preparation for the reception of such Sacraments, how can we ever be certain that such men as came from illicit Traditional seminaries, taught by men who, for the most part, were never trained in a real seminary themselves, were ever “rightly ordained”? We believe the above Tridentine definition ON FAITH; it is an infallible teaching. We do not believe those who teach that the Divine requirement for such lawfulness is only “an administrative matter”; that is heresy.
Faith must precede the reception of the Sacraments, except in infant Baptism. Traditionalists who have accepted those ordained by heretics and schismatics lacking jurisdiction, who are not lawful pastors because they receive no office or the jurisdiction necessary to function in one, are accepting them as lawful and denying a truth of faith, (see /articles/a-catholics-course-of-study/traditionalist-heresies-and-errors/refuting-the-dimonds-2009-no-jurisdiction-position-tapes/cekadas-false-justification-for-acting-without-papal-mandate/ for an explanation of how bestowal of an office is necessary to assume the episcopacy, per the rite of consecration itself). Those who have participated in the NO or Traditionalist services, then, become heretics and also incur infamy of law for committing communicatio in sacris (Canons 2314, 1258). This is true even of those who are in good faith and commit only material heresy, (although there seems to be some question of whether all material heretics are considered legally infamous). Legitimate pastors are obligated to administer sacraments only to those faithful who legitimately request them, (Can. 467). The laity has the right to receive the Sacraments from legitimate pastors but only “according to the rules of ecclesiastical discipline,” (Can. 682). “It is forbidden to administer the Sacraments to heretics or schismatics, even though they err in good faith, unless they have first renounced their errors and been reconciled with the Church,” (Can. 731). So how can those receiving Traditional “sacraments” receive grace from them if they are forbidden to receive them? What use are they if they are valid but fruitless?
- Myth: “Bishops” so–called need no permission from anyone to ordain
Revs. Woywod-Smith, in their “A Practical Commentary on Canon Law,” (Can. 804) note: “The Council of Chalcedon (451) ruled that no strange cleric or lector should be permitted to minister outside his own town without letters of recommendation from his own bishop. Pope Innocent III issued the same prohibition, but said that the priest who did not have his letters of recommendation might be admitted to say Mass if he desired to do so out of devotion: he might not, however, say Mass before the people, but privately. The Council of Trent again made the rule absolute—as the Council of Chalcedon had it—that no priest should be permitted to celebrate Mass and administer the Sacraments without letters of recommendation from his own bishop.”
The following papal decrees are proof that bishops who are not in receipt of the papal mandate upon consecration and resort to schismatics for ordination are not considered true bishops and may not exercise their orders, on pain of nullity.
Pope Pius VI, Charitas:
- “We therefore severely forbid the said Expilly and the other wickedly elected and illicitly consecrated men, under this punishment of suspension, to assume episcopal jurisdiction or any other authority for the guidance of souls since they have never received it. They must not grant dimissorial letters for ordinations. Nor must they appoint, depute, or confirm pastors, vicars, missionaries, helpers, functionaries, ministers, or others, whatever their title, for the care of souls and the administration of the Sacraments UNDER ANY PRETEXT OF NECESSITY WHATSOEVER. Nor may they otherwise act, decree, or decide, whether separately or united as a council, on matters which relate to ecclesiastical jurisdiction. For We declare and proclaim publicly that all their dimissorial letters and deputations or confirmations, past and future, as well as all their rash proceedings and their consequences, are utterly void and without force.
- “We also command and prohibit under the same punishment of suspension both the men consecrated and their consecrators from illicitly conferring the sacrament of confirmation or of orders, or exercising in any way the episcopal office from which they have been suspended. Consequently anyone ordained by them should realize that he is suspended and will be guilty of irregularity if he exercises the orders he has received.”
Pope Pius IX, 1873 Encyclical Etsi Multa:
Addressing the illegitimate “election” as bishop of a “certain notorious apostate” priest by schismatics, Pope Pius IX wrote:
“24. But these men having progressed more boldly in the ways of wickedness and destruction, as happens to heretical sects from God’s just judgment, have wished to create a hierarchy also for themselves…They have chosen and set up a pseudo-bishop, a certain notorious apostate from the Catholic faith, Joseph Humbert Reinkens. So that nothing be lacking in their impudence, for his consecration they have had refuge to those very Jansenists of Utrecht, whom they themselves, before they separated from the Church, considered as heretics and schismatics, as do all other Catholics. However, this Joseph Humbert dares to say that he is a bishop, and, what passes belief, he is recognized and named in an explicit decree by the most serene Emperor of Germany and is proposed to all his subjects as a lawful bishop. But as even the rudiments of Catholic faith declare, no one can be considered a bishop who is not linked in communion of faith and love with Peter, upon whom is built the Church of Christ…
Therefore following the custom and example of Our Predecessors and of holy legislation, by the power granted to Us from heaven, We declare the election of the said Joseph Humbert Reinkens, performed against the sanctions of the holy canons to be illicit, null, and void. We furthermore declare his consecration sacrilegious. Therefore, by the authority of Almighty God, We excommunicate and hold as anathema Joseph Humbert himself and all those who attempted to choose him, and who aided in his sacrilegious consecration. We additionally excommunicate whoever has adhered to them and belonging to their party has furnished help, favor, aid, or consent. We declare, proclaim, and command that they are separated from the communion of the Church. They are to be considered among those with whom all faithful Christians are forbidden by the Apostle to associate and have social exchange to such an extent that, as he plainly states, they may not even be greeted,” (Etsi Multa, On The Church In Italy, Germany, and Switzerland, Nov. 21, 1873 — all emph. mine; https://www.ewtn.com/library/encyc/p9etsimu.htm). Reinkens publicly denounced the definition of infallibility then attempted election as an Old Catholic “bishop.” If Pope Pius IX considered him a “notorious apostate,” isn’t it likely he would consider Traditionalist “bishops” the same?
Attention is to be paid especially to the following: But as even the rudiments of Catholic faith declare, no one can be considered a bishop who is not linked in communion of faith and love with Peter, upon whom is built the Church of Christ…Therefore following the custom and example of Our Predecessors and of holy legislation, by the power granted to Us from heaven, We declare the election of the said Joseph Humbert Reinkens, performed against the sanctions of the holy canons to be illicit, null, and void. We furthermore declare his consecration sacrilegious.
Why are words in the last two sentences from Pope Pius IX’s Etsi Multa bolded (by this author) and placed in caps? Because it very well proves the point that while Reinkins was validly consecrated, his ELECTION (or in other cases it could be illegal appointment, acceptance or intrusion into office) is nullified, not his ORDERS. He is not, and cannot hold the office of bishop, because he is not in union with the pope and was elected and placed in office by heretics and/or schismatics. (The Utrecht Jansenists were considered valid for a time, although this validity later was questioned by some theologians in the 20th century.) Even though validly consecrated, Reinkins is not considered a bishop because he never received the office and accompanying jurisdiction from Rome. The Holy See never approved his consecration and so he remained an apostate Old Catholic priest. Canon Law dictates: “An ecclesiastical office is not validly obtained without canonical appointment. By canonical appointment is understood the conferring of an ecclesiastical office by the competent ecclesiastical authority in harmony with the sacred canons,” (Can. 147). In the case of a bishop, the one conferring the office is the pope; the sacred canons require a papal mandate, (Can. 953). It is from this canon and Pope Pius IX’s constitution above that the faithful can conclude that without a true pope there can be no valid appointment to office. And only a bishop validly occupying an office can grant dimissorial letters for ordination. Both orders AND jurisdiction must exist in men validly ordained and consecrated in order for there to be the continuation of true apostolic succession. For only a true successor of the Apostles can validly and licitly administer the Sacraments.
The Catholic Encyclopedia teaches: “Apostolicity of mission consists in the power of holy orders and the power of jurisdiction derived by legitimate transmission from the Apostles. It is apostolicity of mission which is recognized as a note of the Church.” Here again, we are dealing with legitimacy only, not validity. Traditionalists are trying to pretend that you can have the carriage without the horse and still travel down the road; or operate the car without having the keys. You can make a cake, but it is inedible without an oven to bake it. For “How can they go, unless they be sent?” We would do well to remember that in Mystici Corporis, Pope Pius XII defined that: “Each [bishop], as a true Shepherd, feeds the flock entrusted to him and rules it in the name of Christ. Yet in exercising this office they are not altogether independent, but are subordinate to the lawful authority of the Roman Pontiff, although enjoying the ordinary power of jurisdiction which they receive directly from the same Supreme Pontiff.” And more clearly to the Chinese, in Ad Sinarum Gentem: “But the power of jurisdiction, which is conferred upon the Supreme Pontiff directly by divine right, flows to the Bishops by the same right, but only through the Successor of St. Peter, to whom not only the simple faithful, but even all the Bishops must be constantly subject, and to whom they must be bound by obedience and with the bond of unity.”
- Myth: Those consecrating without papal mandate are not excommunicated
Contrary to what the emergency mandate bunch claims, Pope Pius XII further solidified Church teaching on this topic by declaring those who dare violate Can. 147 excommunicated specialissimi modo, (in a special manner; absolution from the censure able to be removed only by the pope). In pronouncing this excommunication on behalf of the pope, the Sacred Congregation quotes DZ 967, to the effect that if anyone, including those who “assume office on their own authority, are all to be regarded not as ministers of Christ, but as thieves and robbers who have entered not by the door.” Traditionalists say they do not claim to occupy any offices, but this will not save them. For the actual anathema states only that these men “come from a different source;” as Trent explains, “by their own temerity [they] take these offices upon themselves.” In other words, they do not have to say, “I serve as a pastor of the diocese of Milwaukee, St. Agnes parish; or I am the bishop of Wichita, Kansas. They can simply present as “missionary” priests, but even then they must prove they possess jurisdiction, (Can. 200) and were “rightly ordained” (or consecrated). Given the Council of Trent, Charitas and Etsi Multa, how could any rational Catholic believe such nonsense and at the same time still unequivocally accept these infallible decisions of the Roman Pontiffs?
This excommunication is found mentioned in Revs. Woywod-Smith’s commentary under Canon 2394. In the Canon Law Digest, Vol. 3, we find the following comment: “Excommunication as vitandus is inflicted for accepting office from lay authority,” (pg. 71). As seen above, this is exactly the penalty prescribed by Pope Pius IX in Etsi Multa. Are all laity following or aiding Traditionalists priests and bishops with donations and other assistance considered vitandus? Because they have been the victims of fraud, disinformation and in certain cases fear, they are no doubt laboring under censure but most likely not as vitandus. Those who presume to present and act as clerics, however, are certainly candidates for this title. Canon 2218 excuses (especially lay) offenders in certain cases where the person has tried to repent and repair the damage or was caught in circumstances beyond his/her control and understanding. This may well be true given what we have experienced today.
- Myth: Orders received by Traditional bishops and priests are valid
All of the above is based on the premise that we can operate without a pope just as we did when we had one. But this is not the case. If Pope Pius VI and Pope Pius IX as well as other popes handed down such stiff penalties for those administering and receiving Sacraments illicitly when the Roman Pontiff was there to condemn the perpetrators and warn the faithful, how many more precautions need to be taken in these times when there is no one to appeal to, no one to warn or protect the faithful, no one to supervise the bishops and priests, no one to enforce discipline, etc. Bishops were never free to operate independently as Traditionalists pretend. They were monitored by the Sacred Congregations in Rome, namely the Congregation of the Propagation of the Faith (in charge of seminaries and societies responsible for training missionaries, and all matters concerning them collectively or individually involving faith, the liturgy and other matters, Can. 252); the Congregation of Seminaries and Universities, (overseeing government, discipline, temporal administration and studies, Can. 256) and the Consistorial Congregation (Can. 248), with the pope as prefect, that proposes bishops, administrators, Apostolic co-adjutors and auxiliary bishops; gives orders for the canonical investigations or process concerning the men who are to be promoted to the aforesaid positions, carefully examines the acts of the process and conducts the examinations of these men in regard to their knowledge. This congregation sees to the oversight of dioceses, assuring that Ordinaries fulfill their duties and orders Apostolic visitations, (when the bishops report on their diocese to the Holy Father).
Are people today really gullible enough to believe that without this oversight and careful precautions taken to assure the good conduct of bishops there are not rampant abuses and pervading corruption? The canons and rules set up by these congregations concerning the investigation of priestly candidates alone, to ensure their fitness for ordination, is staggering. The studies they are required to make in the seminary would make the preparation required for neurosurgeons and nuclear scientists pale in comparison. The shabby “education” they receive in “Traditional seminaries” is certainly not sufficient to assure that they possess the disposition or preparation necessary to fit them for the Sacrament of Orders. So much for ex opere operato! For without this intensive preparation there are grave doubts they ever receive the Sacrament validly. During an interregnum, when the Church is at its most vulnerable point as proven countless times in history, then must the precautions in place become all the more stringent. And this is precisely what we find in the papal election constitution laid down by Popes St. Pius X and Pius XII.
Pope Pius XII’s Vacantis Apostolica Sedis:
- “During the vacancy of the Apostolic See, regarding those things that pertained to the Sovereign Roman Pontiff while he lived, the Sacred College of Cardinals shall have absolutely no power or jurisdiction of rendering neither a favor nor justice or of carrying out a favor or justice rendered by the deceased Pontiff; rather, let the College be obliged to reserve all these things to the future Pontiff.Therefore, We declare invalid and void any power or jurisdiction pertaining to the Roman Pontiff in his lifetime, which the assembly of Cardinals might decide to exercise (while the Church is without a Pope), except to the extent to which it be expressly permitted in this Our Constitution…
- The laws issued by Roman Pontiffs in no way can be corrected or changed by the assembly of Cardinals of the Roman Church while it is without a Pope, nor can anything be subtracted from them or added or dispensed in any way whatsoever with respect to said laws or any part of them. This prohibition is especially applicable in the case of Pontifical Constitutions issued to regulate the business of the election of the Roman Pontiff.In truth, if anything adverse to this command should by chance happen to come about or be attempted, We declare it, by Our Supreme Authority, to be null and void.”
For relying on the ministrations of schismatic bishops such as Lefebvre and Thuc, members of the Novus Ordo church, for consecration and ordination; for consecrating bishops without a papal mandate and priests without dimissorial letters contrary to papal law; for priests falsely claiming supplied jurisdiction under Can. 2261§2 when such jurisdiction can be supplied only by the pope; for presuming to function despite incurring excommunication as a vitandus, when no pope exists to lift it; for presuming to function while under a vindicative penalty for infamy of law, when only a pope can dispense from it — all these acts are included either in the usurpation of papal prerogatives in paragraph one above or the correction of or dispensation from papal laws in paragraph three. If even the cardinals could not undertake such things, — when they are only bishops and priests granted an additional title — then the bishops as a body could not hope to accomplish this either. That would be the work of an ecumenical council and only the [pope can convene such a council. Even if acts of usurping papal jurisdiction or tampering with papal laws are attempted, such acts are null and void, per infallible decree. No bishops can be created during an interregnum; no dimissorial letters can be granted, so no priests can be ordained, and no jurisdiction or extraordinary powers can be supplied or extended. This is true because the Church exists in a state of suspended animation only and cannot function without her head, except to provide a new pope.
- St. Thomas Aquinas writes: “In order that the Church exist, there must be one person at the head of the whole Christian people,” (Summa Contra Gentilis, Vol. IV, 76).
- The Catechism of the Council of Trent teaches: “It is the unanimous teaching of the Fathers that this visible head is necessary to establish and preserve unity in the Church,” and this from Christ’s guarantees to St. Peter found in Holy Scripture, (Revs. McHugh and Callan edition, p. 104.). So if unity is lacking, the four marks cannot all exist.
- Revs. Devivier and Sasia, whose work was personally endorsed by Pope St. Pius X, wrote: “As it is to the character of the foundation that a building owes its solidarity, the close union of its parts, and even its very existence, it is likewise from the authority of Peter that the Church derives Her unity, her stability, AND EVEN HER EXISTENCE HERSELF. THE CHURCH, THEREFORE, CANNOT EXIST WITHOUT PETER,” (Christian Apologetics, Vol. II).
- Pope Pius IX teaches this fact from his own mouth: “May God give you the grace necessary to defend the rights of the Sovereign Pontiff and the Holy See; for without the Pope there is no Church, and there is no Catholic Society without the Holy See,” (Allocution to religious superiors, June 24, 1872). Who rose to defend the Holy See and the rights of the Church in 1958? NO ONE! The shepherd was struck and the flock dispersed. We are left to follow the advice, again of Pope Pius IX, if we wish to preserve our faith until God sees fit to restore his Church:
“We think it is Our duty to repeat this public declaration now and to request you to preserve the unity of faith among your faithful by every possible means…You should remind them to beware of these treacherous enemies of the flock of Christ and their poisoned foods. They should TOTALLY SHUN their religious celebrations, their buildings, and their chairs of pestilence, which they have with impunity established to transmit the sacred teachings. THEY SHOULD SHUN THEIR WRITINGS AND ALL CONTACT WITH THEM. THEY SHOULD NOT HAVE DEALINGS OR MEETINGS WITH USURPING PRIESTS AND APOSTATES FROM THE FAITH WHO DARE TO EXERCISE THE DUTIES OF AN ECCLESIASTICAL MINISTER WITHOUT POSSESSING A LEGITIMATE MISSION OR ANY JURISDICTION. THEY SHOULD AVOID THEM AS STRANGERS AND THIEVES WHO COME ONLY TO STEAL, SLAY AND DESTROY…For the Church’s children should consider the proper action to preserve the most precious treasure of FAITH…without which it is IMPOSSIBLE to please God, as well as action calculated to achieve the goal of faith, that is the salvation of their souls, by FOLLOWING THE STRAIGHT ROAD OF JUSTICE,” (Pope Pius IX, Encyclical, Graves Ac Diuturnae, March 23, 1875, no. 4; see http://www.apostlesoftheendtimes.com/#!unauthorized-shepherds/c1lle for additional papal quotes and information).